- Armstrong's Axioms are the complete set of basic rules used to infer all the functional dependencies on the relational database.
- Developed by the William W.Armstrong' in 1974

#### Primary Inference Rules

**a) Reflexive rule**

If 'X' is a subset of 'Y' then Y-->X is always true

Example:-

Y= {1,2,3,4,}, X={1,3}

Then Y-->X is true

**b) Transitivity Rule**

If X-->Y and Y-->Z then X--Z

**c) Augmentation Rule**

If X-->Y then XZ--->YZ always true

#### Secondary Rules

**d) Decomposition Rule**

If X-->YZ the X-->Y and X-->Z always holds

**e) Composition Rules**

If X-->Y and Z-->P then XZ-->YP always true.

**f) Additive Rule ( Union Rule)**

If X-->Y, and X-->Z then X--->YZ

**g) Pseudo Transitivity Rule**

If A-->B and BC-->D then AC-->D is always true

### Why Armstrong's Axioms refer to the sound and complete

i) By sound we mean that given a set of FD's F specified on a relation schema R, any dependency that we can infer from F by using The primary rules of Armstrong's Axioms in every relation state 'r' of R that satisfies the dependencies F.

ii) By complete we mean that using primary rules of Armstrong's Axioms repeatedly to infer Armstrong's Axioms until no more dependencies can be interfered results in the complete set of all possible dependencies that can be inferred from 'F'

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