Wednesday, 5 April 2023

PL/SQL Language elements

PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is a procedural programming language designed specifically for use with Oracle Database management systems. The language is made up of a number of different elements, including:

  1. Variables and constants: PL/SQL supports the declaration of variables and constants for use within programs. Variables can be assigned values and used in calculations, while constants cannot be changed once they are declared.

  2. Control structures: PL/SQL provides a variety of control structures for program flow control, including IF-THEN-ELSE statements, WHILE loops, FOR loops, and CASE statements.

  3. Cursors: Cursors are used to process individual rows returned by a SQL query. PL/SQL supports both implicit and explicit cursors.

  4. Exceptions: Exceptions are used to handle errors that occur during program execution. PL/SQL provides a number of predefined exceptions, as well as the ability to define custom exceptions.

  5. Subprograms: PL/SQL supports the creation of subprograms, including functions and procedures. Functions return a single value, while procedures do not return a value but can have side effects.

  6. Packages: Packages are used to group related subprograms and other program elements together into a single unit. They can also be used to provide a namespace for program elements to avoid naming conflicts.

  7. Triggers: Triggers are special PL/SQL programs that are automatically executed in response to specific database events, such as updates, inserts, or deletes.

  8. Object-oriented programming features: PL/SQL supports object-oriented programming features, such as encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

These are some of the key elements of the PL/SQL programming language. Understanding these elements and how to use them is essential for writing effective and efficient PL/SQL programs.


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