Saturday, 4 December 2021

Introduction to Computer Organization

Computer Organization 

Computer Organization deals with the structure and behaviour of a computer system. It acts like the interface between hardware and software and also deals with the components of a connection in a system.
Our Computer Organization includes all topics of such as Introduction, Functional Units, Register Transfer Micro Operations,  Basic Computer Organization, Computer Arthmetic, Centeral Processing Unit, etc.

Functional Units :

 Let us discuss about each functional unit driefly :

 1. Input Unit : 

Computer accepts encoding informatiom through input unit. The most commonly used input devices are keyboards, mouse, joysticks, trackballs, microphones, etc. However the most commonly used or well-known input device is a keyboard.

2. Output Unit : 

The Output Unit consists of output devices that are attached with the computer. It converts the binary data comming from CPU to human understandable language. The output devices are monitor, printer, plotter, etc.

3. Memory Unit :

The amount of data that the memory can hold is known as memort unit. This stores the binary information in the form of bytes. 

Memory is classified as follows :
  • Primary/Main Memory
  • Secondary/Auxiliary Memory

Primary Memory : This is the internal memory that stores the data and instructions of cpu. It is volatile in nature (data is lost when the power is disconnected). They are two types of primary memory 

  • RAM (Random Access Memory) 
                     As per the name, data can be accessed randomly and quickly. 
  • ROM ( Read Only Memory) 
                    As per the name, we can only read data and cannot write to it. 

Secondary Memory : As we know that the primary memory is volatile therefore, we need some devices to store the data permanently so we use some external storage devices for this purpose which we name as the secondary memory. Ex: CD, DVD, etc. 

4. Arthmetic and Logic Unit : 

ALU consist of necessary logic circuits like adder, comparator, etc. to perform operatios of addition, multiplication, comparison of two numbers, etc.

5. Control Unit :

 Control Unit co-ordinates activities of all units by issuing control signals. Control signals issued by control unit govern the data transfers and then appropriate operations take place. Control  unit interprets or decides the operation/action to be performed.

The operations of a computer can be summarized as follows :

  • A set of instructions called a program reside in the main memory of computer.
  • The CPU fetches those instructions sequentially one-by-one from the main  memory, decodes them and performs the specified operation on associated data operands in ALU.
  • Processed data and results will be displayed on an output unit.
  • All activities pertaining to processing and data movement inside the computer machine are governed by control unit.


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